A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, an ability is a self-contained unit of work or expertise. It is the second level of breakdown of the Model of Performance. The ability statement is expressed as an action verb followed by a noun phrase, e.g., “Generate monthly sales reports.” Parameters complete the description of the ability.
A verb that identifies a precise behavior, e.g., describe, assemble, compare. Instructional objectives should always contain an action verb to ensure that they will be specific and measurable. Verbs to be avoided in objectives are “know”, “learn” and “understand” because they can’t be measured. Different action verbs are applicable to the six cognitive levels in Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view. It usually includes the use of non-verbal cues such as nodding, eye contact and posture; and the use of verbal encouragers such as “Yes”, “Aha” and “Mmm”. Includes the skills of Clarifying and Confirming.
Written document containing all of the materials used by an administrator to perform his/her job, such as: preparation and/or distribution of training materials, registration of participants, and monitoring of progress. Usually associated with some form of Self-Directed Learning.
Adult Learning Principles
A set of beliefs about how adults learn best. One such principle is that adult learners want to know early on why something is important to them. Respecting the principles during the design, development and delivery of training will significantly increase learners’ success.
The area of brain function that controls feelings, attitudes, and values. These are not easily measured. See also Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Two or more versions of a test that are considered interchangeable, in that they measure the same constructs in the same ways, are intended for the same purposes, and are administered using the same directions.
Alternate Form Reliability
A measure of reliability, in which alternate forms of the same test are administered to the same subjects on separate occasions. The alternate measures are compared for consistency.
The second phase in FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. During this phase the target training population is analyzed, as well as the required performance, i.e., what do they need to know and do to be successful on the job. If more than one type of performance analysis (Job, Competency, Content and Concept) is conducted, the data is synthesized into a Model of Performance (MoP).
A rapid sequential presentation of slightly differing graphics that creates the illusion of motion. Animation can illustrate much more than static images but requires more computer processing and higher bandwidth, i.e., broadband service.
(1) The middle component of the Systematic Learning Process—Presentation, Application and Feedback (PAF).
(2) The planned activity carried out during the Application stage that provides an opportunity for the learner to apply, use or practice the new skills and knowledge just presented.
Those methods which are employed during Application to allow the learner to apply, use or practice what has just been presented, e.g., case study, game, role play. Sometimes called a practice method.
The means by which an application can be used simultaneously by more than one user. One person starts up the application on his/her computer and shares it with other users at other computers. This is useful in synchronous e-learning to demonstrate the use of an application or to provide supervised individual or group practice.
A question that asks about the use of content. For example:
- What is the value of the idea/concept on the job?
- How could you use the idea/concept on the job?
- In what situation(s) would the idea/concept be useful?
The ability of a person to acquire new skills and knowledge given training and opportunity.
Essentially a measurement process of the learning that has either taken place or can take place. It is usually measured against stated learning outcomes:
- Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might achieve given suitable training.
- Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can do at the time.
A method of communicating where those taking part are NOT connected in real time. Examples in the workplace are e-mail, bulletin boards and voicemail. In online learning, an event in which people are not logged on at the same time. For example, the instructor might publish information on a Website and learners would read it later.
All of the verbal and non-verbal behaviors used to create rapport and facilitate communication between two people. The listener must apply himself/herself and be fully present in the conversation at hand. It is often used in counseling or coaching situations.
(1) A persistent feeling that influences a person to act positively or negatively toward an idea, object, person or situation. It is closely linked to personal opinions and beliefs. Known as the affective domain in psychology.
(2) One of eight performance factors; a negative attitude can result in poor performance.
The medium delivering sound.
Any learning devices or instruments that rely on sound or visual perception to convey a message.