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PAF

The acronym for FKA’s Systematic Learning Process derived from the three components: Presentation, Application and Feedback. See Systematic Learning Process, Presentation, Application and Feedback.
paf

Pair-of-Hands Role

One of three roles consultants can play. The ‘pair-of-hands’ consultant assists the client who maintains all responsibility and control. See also Expert Role, Collaborative Role and Consulting Roles.

Panel Discussion

A structured conversation on a given topic among several panel members (usually subject matter experts or stakeholders) in front of an audience. A facilitator/moderator (or instructor acting in that capacity) directs the discussion among the panel members following an agreed upon format and then opens the discussion up to audience questions.

Parallel Forms

See Alternate forms.

Parallel Forms Reliability

See Alternate Forms Reliability.

Parameters

See Performance Parameters.

Paraphrasing

Demonstrates that the listener understood what the speaker intended by restating the message using different words. This gives the speaker an opportunity to add more in the way of clarification. See also Confirming.

Passing Score

See Cut Score.

Performance

A person’s demonstrated ability to do a job. It is the sum of skills and knowledge and is affected by other performance factors, such as: capacity, attitude, standards, measurement, feedback, conditions and incentive.

Performance Analysis

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, this is the process of gathering and analyzing performance data to create a Model of Performance (MoP).

Performance-Based Task

Activity designed to prove that a learner can actually do the task, not simply know how to do it.

Performance-Based Test

A test which measures the learners’ ability to perform skills and apply knowledge while performing the skills.

Performance Checklist

A checklist of abilities derived from the Model of Performance (MoP). Includes all performance parameters (Circumstances, Standards, Tools and References, Support (human) and Job Aids).

Performance Consultant

A person who identifies performance needs within an organization and provides services that result in performance improvement. Learning is only one possible solution to performance problems.

Performance, Evaluation of

See Level 3 Evaluation – Performance.

Performance Factors

There are eight factors that impact performance: skill and knowledge, capacity, attitude, conditions, incentives, standards, measurement and feedback. Inadequacies with any of these can lead to performance problems. Learning should only be selected as the solution when lack of skill and knowledge, and sometimes poor attitudes, are causing the performance problem.

Performance Gap

(1) During FKA’s Needs Identification phase, performance needs analysis is conducted to determine if there is a gap between the required performance and current performance.
(2) During FKA’s Design phase the gap between the performance objective and the module objective is identified. This gap can be narrowed to zero through bridging activities back on the job.

Performance Improvement

A systematic process of analyzing performance gaps, planning for future improvements in performance, designing and developing interventions to close the gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial and non-financial results.

Performance Indicators

The measurable products of performance—what is created or accomplished. For example, sales results or absenteeism.

Performance Needs

Describe what people actually have to do on the job in order to meet the business needs of the organization.
Robinson, D.G., and Robinson, J.C. Performance Consulting Moving Beyond Training

Performance Needs Analysis

An investigation to determine if there is a gap between the required performance and current performance. It is carried out during the Needs Identification phase of FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. If there is a performance gap, further study is done to determine which performance factors are most likely cause of the performance problem.

Performance Objective

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, a performance objective defines exactly how an ability must be executed in the workplace. It is derived directly from the ability statement and performance parameters in the Model of Performance (MoP).

Performance Parameters

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, parameters provide details about the performance of an ability or component. The five parameters are: Circumstances, Standards, Tools and References, Support (human) and Job Aids.

Performance Problem

The cause of the performance gap. It is usually based on one or more of the eight performance factors, e.g., lack of skill and knowledge, or the standards are not understood.

Performance Solution

Once the probable cause of the performance gap has been identified, a performance solution is recommended, e.g., a learning program to improve skill and knowledge, or implementing a multichannel communication plan to broadcast the standards.

Performing

This is the fourth stage in Bruce Tuckman’s model of group development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. During Performing, the group is ready to take action. See also Forming, Storming, Norming and Adjourning.

Phase

The FKA Instructional Systems Design Methodology has six phases. Each phase is a grouping of activities with a specific purpose and well-defined deliverables. Sign-off or approval signifies the completion of each phase.

Pilot

A full presentation of the learning program in the required environment with a group of the target learners to test the course.

Pilot Test

Applied to the one or more test items that are tested with a small sample of test-takers. Data is collected and analyzed.

Plug-in

A small piece of software that adds functionality to an Internet browser, e.g., streaming audio or video.

Podcast

Comes from Apple’s “iPod” and “broadcasting”. It is a method of publishing files—usually audio files—to the Internet. Users subscribe to a feed and receive new files automatically, usually at no cost.

Point-Biserial Correlation

A statistical technique used to determine the discrimination index of an item.

Polling

A feature of some virtual meeting and classroom software that lets the host/presenter prepare multiple choice or binary choice questions—preferably ahead of time—to be used during the online session. The software will compute the results that can be shared immediately with all attendees.

Population Analysis

Identifies human factors that affect work performance and/or the ability to learn. In FKA’s Needs Identification phase, population analysis is concerned with the human factors affecting job performance. In FKA’s Analysis phase, population analysis focuses on the people needing training and looks at the human factors affecting learning.

Population Factor

Characteristics used to describe the population. Data is gathered for the most critical population factors for the given project and the results analyzed according to the scale used. Factors may affect work performance or the ability to learn.

Population Profile

The summary report for population analysis. It identifies and describes the population and summarizes the data collected. It is one deliverable from FKA’s Analysis phase.

Post-Test

Conducted at the end of the learning program to assess learner mastery. Test items are based on the final module objective. See also Pre-Test/Post-Test.

Practical Exercise

A type of application in which learners apply their skills and knowledge to solve a problem thus demonstrating competence or subject mastery. Practical exercises usually follow the presentation component of the lesson.

Predictive Validity

Measures the degree to which the scores from a test predict the scores of future performance for the same group of subjects after the required period of time has elapsed. For a test to have predictive validity, its results must strongly correlate with the results of the later performance indicator.

Preliminary Learning Plan

The final deliverable from FKA’s Needs Identification phase. It identifies the proposed learning program and describes the learning context. It contains the proposed primary instructional strategy(ies), an estimate of the length of the learning program, a project plan and preliminary cost benefit analysis. Based on this document management should be able to make decisions whether or not to move forward with the project and whether or not to complete the work with internal resources or generate a Request for Proposal and hire external resources.

Prerequisite

Something that learners must know or already be able to do satisfactorily before the learning program begins as it is not included in the program.

Prerequisite Test

An assessment done prior to instruction to ensure that learners possess the minimal skills needed to succeed because these skills will not be covered during the learning program.

Presentation

The first component of FKA’s Systematic Learning Process. Presentation begins with establishing the initial motivation for the learners, then the information is transferred and finally some questions are asked to test for understanding. Presentation is followed by Application and Feedback.

Presentation Methods

Those methods which are used during Presentation to transfer the information, e.g., lecture, demonstration, reading assignment.

Pre-Test/Post-Test

Pre-Test: An assessment done prior to instruction to determine the level of skills or knowledge that a learner brings to instruction.
Post-test: An assessment done after the learning program to determine the change in learner ability or knowledge when compared to the pre-test data gathered before the start of the course.

Primary Analysis

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the primary type of analysis establishes the fundamental organization of the Model of Performance (MoP) data. Data from any secondary analysis is integrated into this fundamental structure at key points. There are four possible types of analysis: job, competency, content and concept.

Priority Value

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the priority is a value (1-36) representing the relative importance of an ability. It is calculated from the criticality, difficulty and frequency ratings.

Probable Cause

Once the performance gap has been isolated, the probable cause of the gap is identified. It is usually based on one or more of the eight performance factors, e.g., lack of skill and knowledge, or the standards are not understood.

Problem Group

The group whose performance needs improving. Also called the Target Group.

Processing Questions

Require learners to think about and use information that was presented previously. They involve the higher cognitive levels in Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy, i.e., Apply, Analyze, Evaluate and Create.

Project Plan

Document which outlines the various steps for each phase required to create, implement and evaluate the learning program. It should also include deadlines for each step, approval points and description of the resources needed.

Prototype

Samples of learning materials created to get approval on their look and feel, and functionality. They show the style, level of detail, and quality of materials. Once approved they become the standard or model for developing the remaining materials. Prototypes are produced at the start of FKA’s Development phase.

Psychomotor Domain

The area of brain function that controls physical movement and coordination. See also Bloom’s Taxonomy.

P-Value

Measures the probability (ranging from 0 to 1) that the results of an assessment occurred by chance alone. A result is conventionally regarded as “statistically significant” if the likelihood that it is due to chance alone is less than 5 times out of 100 (P < 0.05).

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