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Near Non-Example

One of the three kinds of examples created during Concept Analysis. A near non-example matches many of the characteristics of the concept but fails to match at least one.

Needs Analysis

See Performance Needs Analysis and Training Needs Analysis.

Needs Identification Phase

The first phase in FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. It is broken into two sub-phases—Determine Needs and Plan Project. During Determine Needs you identify the performance target; describe the population and work context and evaluate current performance; determine the cause of any performance gaps and recommend solutions. The deliverable here is called a Solution Report. If learning is a solution, you proceed to Plan Project sub-phase where you analyze the learning context; scope the project; develop a work plan; and analyze costs and benefits. The deliverable here is called a Preliminary Learning Plan.


See Cognitive Neuroscience

Non-Performance Test

See Knowledge-Based Test.

Non-Learning Solution

A solution for correcting poor performance that does not include formal learning, e.g., defining standards, increasing incentives, hiring more people.

Non-Verbal Communication

Any communication not expressed in words, i.e., facial expression or body language.


This is the third stage in Bruce Tuckman’s model of group development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. During Norming, the group is able to focus on the task now that rules and roles are clear. See also Forming, Storming, Performing and Adjourning.

Norm-Referenced Test (NRTs)

A test that compares a test-taker’s score to that of the other test-takers in the norm group. For example, standardized educational tests are NRTs while certification tests are usually criterion-referenced tests (CRTs).

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