A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L    M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 


The acronym to help identify the client in a consulting relationship. The client has the Money to implement the intervention, the Authority to give approvals, and the Desire to see it through to a successful conclusion. See also Client.

Maintenance Behavior

One of three types of types of behavior exhibited by individuals in a group. Maintenance behaviors contribute to the human component, the growth of interpersonal relationships. They include: encouraging communication, setting standards, mediating, observing processes and compromising. See also Task-Oriented Behavior and Self-Oriented Behavior.
Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University

Master Performer

See Exemplar.

Matching Item

Assesses the test-takers’ ability to recognize the correct matches between two lists of items. Can also test higher levels of cognition such as apply and analyze.


One of eight performance factors. In this context, it refers to the gauge, method/process and results of assessed performance. Measurements should be taken against existing performance standards, i.e., the Model of Performance. A deficiency in measurement can result in poor performance.


Tools used for storing and communicating information. Types include: text, audio, graphic, video, animation, etc. Delivery formats can be generally split into paper or electronic. Distribution modes of electronic materials include: DVD, USB flash drive or Internet.


The faculty by which the brain stores and retrieves facts, events, impressions, etc. New information is first screened by the sensory register, passed to short-term memory and, if appropriate, transferred into long-term memory to be stored for later retrieval. The goal of learning programs is to get as many skill and knowledge items as possible into learner’s long-term memory. See also Sensory Register, Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory.


One type of coaching activity. Mentoring has its roots in apprenticeship where an older, more experienced person passes on skills and knowledge, experience and wisdom about a particular job or about the workplace in general.


A way of delivering content to learners in small (generally less than 5 minutes), very focused chunks. These chunks could provide, among other things: content presentation, practice, review, performance support. Computers with Internet access and mobile devices are well suited to delivering the lessons to the learners. Learners are in control of what and when they’re learning.

Missing Teaching Point

A weak instructional item in which the learner is expected to answer a question when insufficient content or teaching points have been presented to allow a correct response.

m-Learning (Mobile Learning)

Learning takes place via such wireless devices as smart phones, tablets, or laptops.


One type of media. It is a three-dimensional physical or virtual representation of a person, object, equipment or structure.

Model of Learning (MoL)

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the MoL specifies the curriculum, courses, modules and lessons that are required to prepare an individual to achieve the performance objectives specified by the Model of Performance.

Model of Performance (MoP)

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the MoP specifies the set of abilities required by the population to meet an identified performance goal. It must be documented early in the process and used to prepare the objectives and define the content of the tests. Later it is used to validate the content of the test. If more than one type of analysis was completed, the MoP integrates data from the different analyses.

Modified Angoff

A method for setting the cut or passing score of a test. A panel of judges (subject matter experts) review a test, item by item. Each judge estimates what proportion of minimally competent test-takers would get the correct answer. These proportions are then averaged across items and judges to determine the panel’s recommended passing score.


In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, a module is the part of a course that prepares a person to perform an ability.

Module Objective

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the module objective describes the intended outcome of a formal learning module. It is based on a performance objective and, in fact, can be identical to it, if that performance can be achieved by the end of the formal learning program.

Module Outline

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, a module outline is an overview of a module which includes the module objective, the module test/application, the instructional strategies, and the outlines of the lessons that comprise the module. When other module outline information and course outline information is added it becomes the Learning Outline.

Module Plan

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, a Module Plan is created from the Lesson Plans and includes the module introduction and conclusion and details about their timing and media required. When other module plan information and course plan information is added it becomes the Learning Plan.

Module Test

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, a module test (or application) is used to measure attainment of the module objective. It is derived directly from the module objective and must match both performance and conditions. It is also called a criterion test.


(1) The drive to accomplish an action. Unsatisfied needs motivate. On the biological level, basic human needs of food, shelter and survival are powerful motivators. On the psychological level, people need to be understood, affirmed, validated and appreciated. On business (and learning) levels, motivation occurs when people perceive a clear reason for improving their performance.
(2) The first step in the Presentation component of the Systematic Learning Process.
Initial Motivation
(3) In learning programs, it is important to establish the learner’s initial motivation early and to maintain it throughout. Learners’ motivation can be achieved by: (a) telling them how the topic is relevant to them; (b) asking them why it is relevant; and (c) using real-world examples to show how this topic has helped before. See also WIIFM.
Ongoing Motivation
(4) During the Information Transfer portion of FKA’s Systematic Learning Process it is essential to keep learners motivated. Ongoing motivation is maintained through application of the VIVE formula: Variety of methods, Interaction through effective questioning, Visuals that support the content, and Examples that reinforce relevance. See also Interactive Instruction and VIVE.

Motor Performance

A performance involving physical movement or manipulation.


The integration of different media, including text, graphics, audio and animation into one program.

Multiple-Choice Item

A multiple-choice item is made up of a stem (the question or statement), and several possible options. The test-taker must identify the correct option(s), referred to as the key(s). The incorrect options in a multiple-choice question are called distractors. Multiple choice items are common on exams, particularly standardized tests because they are easily marked and can test a large number of teaching points in a relatively short time.
• Single-select multiple-choice items have only one correct answer.
• Multiple-select multiple-choice items may have two or more correct answers.

Multiple Role Playing

One type of role play. The class is divided into small groups and all learners are players. Each player is given a written role or an assignment and the entire class role plays at the same time.

Comments are closed.