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Leader-Led Instruction (LL)

Instructional strategy in which an instructor/facilitator presents the information, conducts the application and provides feedback. It is usually directed toward a group rather than at an individual, although one-to-one tutoring is also a form of leader-led instruction.

Learner-Centered Objectives

State what the learners will be able to do at the end of the lesson or module, NOT what the instructor/facilitator will do. For example: “Upon successful completion of this lesson, learners will be able to add a new client to the sales data base.” NOT “During this lesson the instructor/facilitator will demonstrate how to add a new client to the sales database.” The first objective gives you something specific and measurable against which you can judge learners’ behavior.

Learning Aid

A device or information source used during the learning period that guides or assists the learning process, for example, handouts that support classroom or OJT activities. It is NOT a job aid.

Learning Content Management System (LCMS)

Manages the process of creating, storing and maintaining learning content. The components of an LCMS are: an authoring application (editors), a learning object repository, and administration tools. Some LCMSs are adding the functions found in Learning Management Systems.

Learner Guide

The manual given to learners participating in the learning program. It contains more than copies of the presentation slides, for example, worksheets and exercise instructions. It may act only as a follow-along guide to be used during the program or include references and job aids to be used back on the job. There is usually an index and/or table of contents. Also called a Participant Manual.

Learning Domain

Learning can occur in three domains: affective (emotional), cognitive (mental) and psychomotor (physical). See also Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Learning, Evaluation of

See Level 2 Evaluation – Learning.

Learning Initiative

See Learning Program.

Learning Interaction

A small group of teaching points presented as a unit and followed by a test for understanding. In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, more complex lessons may be broken down into learning interactions.

Learning Intervention

See Learning Program.

Learning Management System (LMS)

Manages the documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of learning. Some LMSs are adding the functions found in Learning Content Management Systems.

Learning Needs

Identify what people will need to learn and transfer to the job to enable them to meet the performance needs of the organization.
Robinson, D.G., and Robinson, J.C. Performance Consulting Moving Beyond Training

Learning Object

A self-contained piece of learning material with an associated learning objective, which could be of any size and in a range of media. Learning objects can be re-used and combined with other objects for different learning purposes. To improve the reusability of online learning objects, or to integrate them into Learning Content Management Systems and Learning Management Systems a specific data format, SCORM, is used.

Learning Organization

An organization that is able to transform itself by acquiring new knowledge, skills, or behaviors. In successful learning organizations, individual learning is continuous, knowledge is shared, and the culture supports learning. Employees are encouraged to think critically and take risks with new ideas. All employees’ contributions are valued.

Learning Outline

The second design document produced in the Design phase of FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. It communicates structure and outcomes. It contains the module and lesson outlines, grouped and sequenced in the order they will be taught. A Learning Outline may include estimates of the formal learning time.

Learning Plan

The final document produced in the Design phase of FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. It expands on the Learning Outline to include ordered learning interactions; presentation, application and feedback methods; media; planned times; and introductions and conclusions for the lessons, modules and the course.

Learning Program

A formal course, module or lesson designed to improve performance by incorporating all the fundamentals of effective instructional design. It can be delivered in any of the six instructional strategies or combination of those strategies. Also referred to as a learning initiative or learning intervention.

Learning Scope

The first design document produced in the Design phase of FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. It identifies the content to be included in the formal learning program. It is a subset of the Model of Performance with some abilities excluded from the program for a variety of reasons.

Learning Style

The manner in which a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environment. Components of learning style are the cognitive, affective and physiological elements, all of which may be strongly influenced by a person’s cultural background. Included also are perceptual modalities, information processing styles and personality patterns.
Note: There is substantial criticisms of learning style theories from scientists who have reviewed related research and not found evidence to support the theories.

Learning Taxonomy

See Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Learning Transfer

The degree to which learners retain the knowledge and apply the skills achieved during the formal learning program to the workplace. Transfer of learning is affected by: the learners’ motivation to apply the skill and knowledge, the effectiveness of the program + transfer activities, and degree of support in the workplace.


A presentation method where an expert delivers a prepared presentation on a specific topic. It is essentially one-way communication with the instructor, facilitator or lecturer as the source of all the information.

Legal Defensibility

The extent to which there is evidence to demonstrate the reliability and validity of a test—the more data the better. To defend a test in a court of law you must use and document sound measurement procedures including data collection and analysis throughout the design, development, administration and maintenance of the test. Content validity is particularly important to legal defensibility.


In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the lesson is the part of a module that prepares a person to perform a component. It is the smallest unit of instruction to include presentation, application and feedback. Long and/or complex lessons can be broken down into learning interactions.

Lesson Objective

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the lesson objective describes the performance outcome to be achieved upon completion of a lesson. It is derived from a component statement and may be identical if the performance can be achieved with a formal learning program.

Lesson Outline

In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the lesson outline is an overview of a lesson which specifies the objective, test/application, and instructional strategy along with a content outline. When module outline and course outline information is added it becomes the learning outline.

Lesson Plan

(1) Written guide for instructors/facilitators that includes such things as: timing estimates; lists of equipment and media; instructions on how to present the content, conduct the applications, debrief and give feedback. FKA calls these Instructor/Facilitator Guides.
(2) In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, the lesson plan is more detailed than the lesson outline. It includes: the final order for the learning interactions, the presentation methods, the design for the lesson introduction and conclusion, timing and media selections. It may also contain questions used to test for understanding. When module plan and course plan information is added it becomes the Learning Plan.

Lesson Test

A test used to determine whether or not learners can meet the lesson objectives. It is also called a sub-criterion test and is part of a larger module test (criterion test).

Level 1 Evaluation: Reaction

Measures how the learners react to the learning program.

Level 2 Evaluation: Learning

Measures the extent to which learners change attitudes, improve knowledge and/or increase skill as a result of the learning program. The criterion and sub-criterion tests are administered to see whether the module and lesson objectives were attained.

Level 3 Evaluation: Performance

Measures the extent to which change in behavior has occurred after the learning program. It evaluates the learners’ performance on the job following the program, using performance indicators of some type and is usually done a few months after program is completed.

Level 4 Evaluation: Results

Measures the business results for the organization that can be attributed to the learning program. It usually involves performance indicators or organizational data, possibly in the form of regular reports.

Likert Scale

A type of response format used in surveys developed by Rensis Likert. Likert items have responses on a continuum and response categories such as: “strongly agree,” “agree,” “no opinion,” “disagree”, and “strongly disagree.”

Linear Program

Any form of self-directed instruction in which all learners cover exactly the same content in the same sequence.


A transition statement that links an upcoming module or lesson to the previous one, e.g., “Now that you can log on to the sales data base, you are ready to search for your client’s records.” A good link-in gives a quick overview and prepares learners for what comes next. You may not need a link-in if you just ended the previous module or lesson with a link-out.


A transition statement that links a module or lesson just ending to the upcoming one, e.g., “This afternoon you have had a chance to practice responding to some common customer complaints. Tomorrow, you will learn how to recognize more serious complaints that should be forwarded to your supervisors.” A good link-out gives a quick review and prepares learners for what comes next. You may not need a link-out if you will immediately give a link-in to the next module or lesson.

Live Session

A facilitated synchronous e-learning event delivered in a virtual classroom.

Local Delivery

One part of the local vs. remote consideration for selecting an instructional strategy. Answers: “Are learners in one location or spread out geographically?” If learners are close together, facilitated in-person classes are more feasible.

Long-Term Memory

Information retained in the brain and retrievable over a long period of time, often over the entire life span of the individual. It is not literal like short-term memory; often stores concepts, relationships, etc. New information is integrated with existing.

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