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A short planned activity whose purpose is to create a comfortable atmosphere that makes participants feel more at ease with each other and the instructor/facilitator. Icebreakers include: energizers, tension relievers, games, brain teasers and getting-acquainted exercises.

Implementation Phase

The fifth phase in FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. During this phase pilots are conducted, formal learning programs are disseminated or delivered, and bridging activities are completed by the identified target population.


A type of case study application where material is placed in the learner’s in-basket and he/she must take whatever action is necessary to place it in the out-basket.

In-Person Delivery

Instructors/facilitators and learners are in the same location at the same time, e.g., traditional classroom instruction. Sometimes called face-to-face (F2F) delivery.


One of eight performance factors. Incentives include any forms of financial or recognition rewards. Financial rewards include: salaries, bonuses and stock sharing awards. Recognition rewards include: preferred work assignments, locations and shifts; time off; discretionary treatment; and non-monetary awards. A deficiency in any of these can lead to poor performance.

Incident Process

A type of case study application activity where an incomplete description of a situation is presented. Learners must determine what facts or materials are missing and ask the instructor/facilitator to provide them; however, they are given only the information they specifically ask for and nothing extra.

Individual Presentation

A presentation method involving one learner who prepares a short lesson on a topic and presents it to the rest of the group.

Information Transfer

The second step in the Presentation component of the Systematic Learning Process. It is the process by which the relevant content is communicated to the learner. A variety of presentation methods can be used.

Initial Motivation

See Motivation.


Any action from the learner that is recognized by the e-learning courseware. It may come from a touch-screen; keyboard, mouse or other peripheral.

Instructional Strategy

FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology identifies six instructional strategies: Leader-Led (LL), Self-Directed Learning (SDL), e-Learning, On-the-Job (OJT), Self Instruction (SI) or Stand-Alone Job Aid. To select the most appropriate strategy for a situation, you must consider the instructional strategy framework, along with the content itself and any context constraints.

Instructional Strategy Framework

When selecting an appropriate instructional strategy for a given situation you look at the need for: group vs. individual instruction, facilitated vs. unfacilitated instruction, and local vs. remote delivery mechanisms. When defining an e-learning solution, the need for synchronous vs. asynchronous communication is also considered.

Instructional Systems Design (ISD)

(1) An orderly design process moving from analysis, to design, to development, to implementation and evaluation, often referred to as ADDIE. Also known as Systems Approach to Training (SAT). Some organizations use an AGILE approach to instructional design.
(2) FKA has its own ISD Methodology that starts with Needs Identification, a critical phase that contains all the required pre-project investigations, recommendations and decisions. Another difference is FKA’s analysis phase which defines four types of performance analysis (job, competency, content and concept) that are synthesized into a comprehensive Model of Performance. Finally, the FKA cycle shows the validation steps at all stages.

Instructor-Led Training (ILT)

See Leader-Led Instruction.

Instructor/Facilitator Guide

Document that directs the instructor/facilitator in the presentation, application and feedback components for the course. See also Lesson Plan.


A tool used to collect and organize information, e.g., a questionnaire, scale, test.


The two-way flow of information between two or more people. In the physical classroom, the instructor/facilitator makes statements, asks questions or creates situations to which the learners respond. Can be used to draw content from the learners. Meaningful interaction keeps learners engaged and improves both retention and transfer of the new skills and knowledge to work.

Interactive Instruction

A style of instruction used during the information transfer portion of FKA’s Systematic Learning Process that keeps learners actively involved in the learning through the “VIVE” formula:
Variety – Use different presentation methods and media to appeal to different learners and keep interest high.
Interaction – Ask learners meaningful questions and provide activities to involve learners in building content.
Visuals – Support the content with colored charts, tables, pictures, models, props, video and animation to enhance clarity and support retention.
Examples – Use relevant examples that are appropriate to the audience to clarify content and keep learners motivated.
VIVE should be a goal for all instructional strategies. See also Motivation.


The two-way flow of information between a computer and a user. During self-directed e-learning the learner provides input in response to the program. Meaningful interactivity keeps learners engaged and improves both retention and transfer of the new skills and knowledge to work.


(1) Originated as a computer term. Interleaving is a technique used to improve performance of storing data by putting data accessed sequentially into non-sequential sectors.
(2) In learning design instead of presenting content in a series of blocks of content (AAA, BBB, CCC), the content is broken up into smaller chunks and practiced in parallel. Interleaving mixes practice on several related skills together (ABC, ABC, ABC). Neuroscientists believe that practicing related skills or concepts in parallel is an effective way to improve memory.

Internal Consistency

Applied to a set of items on a test to measure the reliability that the scores of the individual items correlate with one another. In other words, one criteria for a test to be deemed reliable is that the scores on individual questions are similar to each other.

Interrater Reliability

Applied to performance-based tests or questions scored by human raters. It measures how consistent and dependable the scores are across raters.


(1) A formal or informal meeting in which the person initiating the discussion solicits information from a person or group of people. Interviews can be conducted face-to-face, over the phone or using virtual meeting software.
(2) A Presentation method where one or more experts are questioned by one or more learners.
Irrelevant TFU (Test for Understanding)
A weak learning interaction in which the learner is asked to give an answer or response that is NOT relevant to the skills or knowledge to be learned, e.g., the test for understanding questions concern nice-to-know content that is not critical to performance.


A statement, question, exercise or task on a test for which the test-taker must provide some form of response.

Item Analysis

Statistical analysis that is applied to individual items to assess their quality. It may also involve item difficulty analysis and distractor analysis.

Item Difficulty Index

Applied to an individual test item, it indicates the difficulty by measuring what proportion of the test-takers answered the question correctly.

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