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Facilitated e-Learning (FeL)

A form of e-learning in which an instructor/facilitator guides learning in a virtual environment often called a “virtual classroom”. Since the instructor/facilitator and learners are all logged in at the same time to the same environment this is considered a ‘synchronous’ e-learning activity.


See Population Factor.


The art of leading people through processes toward agreed-upon objectives in a manner that encourages participation, ownership and creativity by all those involved.


See Test Fairness.


(1) Completes FKA’s Systematic Learning Process—Presentation, Application and Feedback (PAF)—by providing information to the learners about their performance of the application. For example: accuracy, rate, correctness, effectiveness, etc.
(2) One of eight performance factors; lack of feedback or ineffective feedback may mean that the necessary performance improvements are not made.

Field Test

A complete trial run of the test with a sample of test-takers to determine the adequacy and usability of the test itself as well as all the test procedures.

Field Trip

A field trip is a carefully arranged event in which a group of learners visits an object or place of interest for first-hand observation and study.

Fill-in-the-Blank Item

See Completion Item.

Flipped Classroom

A type of blended learning that reverses the traditional educational arrangement by delivering instructional content, often online, outside of the physical or virtual classroom and moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the classroom. In a flipped classroom model, learners complete reading assignments, watch online presentations and collaborate in online discussions; then they apply the information in the classroom under the guidance of the instructor/facilitator.

Focus Group

A data collection method using a small group of people from the target population. They are led through a structured interview process for the purpose of developing their individual and group ideas, opinions or recommendations.

Forgetting Curve

Developed by Hermann Ebbinghaus in 1885 who studied the memorization of nonsense syllables, such as “WID” and “ZOF” by repeatedly testing himself after various time periods and recording the results. He was the first to demonstrate the exponential loss of memory of information that is not reinforced.

Formal Learning

The structured learning program, which along with bridging activities, allows learners to meet the performance objectives.

Formative Assessment

The goal of formative assessment is to monitor learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to know when to adapt the instructional methods and/or activities and by learners to improve their learning. See also Summative Evaluation (or Assessment).
Formative Evaluation (of program materials)
Validation of learning materials conducted during its early, formative stages for the purpose of revising materials before widespread use. See also Developmental Testing and Pilot.


This is the first stage in Bruce Tuckman’s model of group development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. During Forming, the group establishes its boundaries, terms of reference and goals. See also Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning.


In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, frequency is one of three characteristics used to rate the relative priority of abilities and components. The more frequently an ability is performed on the job the higher its priority to be included in the learning program. The other two characteristics used to calculate the priority value are criticality and difficulty. See also Priority Value.

Frequency Distribution

A tabular or graphical representation of a set of data, e.g., the number of times a given test score or group of scores occurs.

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