(1) Morgan McCall and his colleagues working at the Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) are usually credited with originating the 70:20:10 ratio. Two of McCall’s colleagues, Michael M. Lombardo and Robert W. Eichinger, published data from one CCL study in their 1996 book The Career Architect Development Planner.
(2) Based on a survey asking nearly 200 executives to self-report how they believed they learned, McCall, Lombardo and Eichinger’s surmised that: “Lessons learned by successful and effective managers are roughly:
• 70% from challenging assignments
• 20% from developmental relationships
• 10% from coursework and training
(3) More recently the learning model is explained as:
• 70% of what workers need to know and do is learned experientially doing their jobs
• 20% is learned socially through interactions with others
• 10% is learned during formal learning programs
In FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology, an ability is a self-contained unit of work or expertise. It is the second level of breakdown of the Model of Performance. The ability statement is expressed as an action verb followed by a noun phrase, e.g., “Generate monthly sales reports.” Characteristics and parameters complete the description of the ability.
A verb that identifies a precise behavior, e.g., describe, assemble, compare. Instructional objectives should always contain an action verb to ensure that they will be specific and measurable. Verbs to be avoided in objectives are “know”, “learn” and “understand” because they can’t be measured. Different action verbs are applicable to the six cognitive levels in Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker’s point of view. It usually includes the use of non-verbal cues such as nodding, eye contact and alert posture; and the use of verbal encouragers such as “Yes”, “Aha” and “Mmm”. Includes the skills of Clarifying and Confirming.
This is the final stage in Bruce Tuckman’s model of group development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. This stage was added later. Adjourning involves completing the task and breaking up the team. This stage is sometimes referred to as Mourning. See also Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing.
Adult Learning Principles
The action and conditions that support, enhance and promote learning in adults. Respecting the principles during the design, development and delivery of learning programs will significantly increase learners’ success.
The area of brain function that controls feelings, attitudes, and values. These are not easily measured. See also Bloom’s Taxonomy.
AGILE Instructional Design
An acronym for an approach to Instructional Systems Design that was first expressed by Conrad Gottfredson. The concept was adapted from the AGILE approach to computer systems design. The acronym stands for Align, Get set, Iterate & implement, Leverage, and Evaluate. The philosophy of AGILE is to rapidly implement small chunks of learning, repeating the cycle until a complete program is provided.
(1) See Test Alignment.
(2) In performance consulting, alignment measures the degree to which the learning needs and the performance and business needs are the same.
Two or more versions of a test that are considered interchangeable, in that they: measure the same constructs in the same ways, are intended for the same purposes, and are administered using the same directions.
Alternate Form Reliability
A measure of reliability, in which alternate forms of the same test are administered to the same subjects on separate occasions. The alternate forms are compared for consistency.
The second phase in FKA’s Instructional Systems Design Methodology. During this phase the target learning population is analyzed, as well as the required job performance. The two deliverables from this phase are the Population Profile and the Model of Performance (MoP). See also Population Analysis, Population Profile, Performance Analysis and Model of Performance.
Malcolm Knowles’ theory of how adults learn as opposed to children (pedagogy). He emphasized that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions. Adult learning programs must accommodate this fundamental aspect. Andragogy makes the following assumptions about the design of learning: (1) Adults need to know why they need to learn something (2) Adults need to learn experientially, (3) Adults approach learning as problem-solving, and (4) Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value. In practical terms, andragogy means that instruction for adults needs to focus more on them practicing and less on the content being taught. Strategies such as case studies, role playing, simulations, and self-evaluation are most useful. Instructors adopt a role of facilitator or resource rather than lecturer. Knowles is considered the father of learner-centered environments.
A rapid sequential presentation of slightly differing graphics that creates the illusion of motion. Animation can illustrate much more than static images but requires more computer processing.
(1) The middle component of FKA’s Systematic Learning Process—Presentation, Application and Feedback (PAF). The learner applies, uses or practices the new skills and knowledge just presented.
(2) The planned activity carried out during the Application stage that provides an opportunity for the learner to practice the new skills and knowledge just presented.
Those methods employed during Application to allow the learner to apply, use or practice what has just been presented, e.g., case study, game, role play. Sometimes called a practice method.
The means by which an application can be used simultaneously by more than one user. One person starts up the application on his/her computer and shares it with other users at other computers. This is useful in facilitated e-learning to demonstrate the use of an application or to provide supervised individual or group practice.
A question that asks about the use of content. For example:
• What is the value of the idea/concept on the job?
• How could you use the idea/concept on the job?
• In what situation(s) would the idea/concept be useful?
The ability of a person to acquire new skills and knowledge given opportunities to learn and practice.
Essentially a measurement process of the learning that has either taken place or can take place. It is usually measured against stated learning outcomes:
• Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might achieve given a suitable learning program.
• Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can do at the time.
See also Formative Assessment and Summative Evaluation (or Assessment).
A method of communicating where those taking part are NOT connected in real time. Examples in the workplace are e-mail, discussion boards and voicemail. In online learning, an event in which people are not logged on at the same time. For example, the instructor/facilitator might publish information on a Website and learners would read it later.
All of the verbal and non-verbal behaviors used to create rapport and facilitate communication between two people. The listener must apply himself/herself and be fully present in the conversation at hand. It is often used in counseling or coaching situations.
(1) A persistent feeling that influences a person to act positively or negatively toward an idea, object, person or situation. It is closely linked to personal opinions and beliefs. Known as the affective domain in psychology.
(2) One of eight performance factors; a negative attitude can result in poor performance.
Identifies human factors that affect work performance and/or the ability to learn. Also called Population Analysis.
The medium delivering sound.